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Lore:Tamrielic Emperors

Lore: Appendices

The table below lists all known Tamrielic Emperors. These are individuals who ruled the Cyrodilic Empires of Tamriel, including emperors, regents, potentates, and others who assumed control of the Imperial City and the Ruby Throne. The table is organized according to ruling dynasties and interregnal periods.

Name Born Race Crowned Died, Deposed, Abdicated,
or Office Abolished
Additional Information
Ayleid Empire
Umaril the Unfeathered  ? Ayleid-Ada 1E 243[1][2] 1E 243[1][2] Summoned to Nirn by the Ayleids of the Alessian Slave Rebellion.
First Empire
Alessia 1E ? Nede 1E 243[3] 1E 266[4] Founded the First Empire.
Belharza the Man-Bull 1E ? Minotaur 1E 266[5] possibly 1E 322[UOL 1] Son of Empress Alessia and the demigod Morihaus.
Ami-El[UOL 2] 1E ? possibly 1E 322[UOL 1] 1E ? Active in 1E 358.[nb 1]
First Empire during the Alessian Doctrines
Gorieus 1E ? 1E 461[6] possibly 1E 478 or later[7]
Hestra 1E ? 1E ? 1E ? Active in 1E 1029,[8] around 1E 1030[nb 2] and 1E 1033.[9]
Shor-El[10] 1E ? 1E ? 1E ? Probably after Hestra.[nb 3]
Unknown 1E ? 1E ? 1E 22?? Alessian Emperor during the assault on Thras, active in 1E 2241.[nb 4]
Unknown 1E ? 1E ? 1E 2331 Final Alessian Emperor.[nb 5]
Empire post-dissolution of the Alessian Reform
Herda 1E ? 1E ? pre-1E 2703[12] Empress credited with improving relations with the Colovian West.[13]
Second EmpireReman Dynasty
Reman I 1E ?[nb 6] 1E 2703[12] 1E 2762[14] Founded the Second Empire and Reman Dynasty. He never took the title of Emperor in his lifetime.[15]
Kastav 1E ? 1E 2762[nb 7] 1E 2804 (deposed)[16],

1E 2812 (died)[17][nb 8]

Reman II 1E 2794[18] 1E 2804 (deposition of Kastav)[16],

1E 2812 (official coronation)[19][18]

1E 2843[16][18]
Brazollus Dor[nb 9] 1E ? 1E 2843[16][20][18] 1E 2877[21][20]
Reman III 1E ? Imperial[nb 10] 1E 2877[21] 1E 2920[22] Assassinated by the Morag Tong.[23]
Second EmpireAkaviri Potentate
Versidue-Shaie 1E ? Tsaesci 1E 2920[24] 2E 324[23] Assassinated by the Morag Tong.[23]
Savirien-Chorak 1E ? Tsaesci 2E 324 2E 430[25] Assassinated by the Dark Brotherhood.[23][nb 11]
Pretenders of the Empire of Cyrodiil during the Interregnum
Attrebus[26] 2E ? Imperial 2E ? 2E 53? Expelled the Akaviri from Cyrodiil sometime between 2E 430 and the rise of the Longhouse Emperors.[nb 12]
Many would-be conquerors [27] 2E ? 2E ? 2E ? Various warlords conquering the Imperial City, none as longlived as the Longhouse Emperors.
Durcorach 'the Black Drake' ~2E 485[28] Reachman 2E 533[29][28] 2E 541[30][28] or 2E 542[31] Reachman Warlord who conquered Cyrodiil and founded the Longhouse Emperor dynasty.
Moricar 'the Middling'[32] 2E 518[28] Reachman 2E 541[30][28] or 2E 542[31] 2E 564[28] Son of Durcorach. Born and raised in the Reach, but received an Imperial education during his father's reign as emperor.
Leovic 2E 542[28] Reachman 2E 564[28] 2E 577[28] Son of Moricar. Unlike his father and grandfather, he had no experience living outside of Cyrodiil. The third and final member of the Longhouse Emperors dynasty.
Varen Aquilarios 2E 536[UOL 3] Imperial 2E 577[28] 2E 579[33] Overthrew Leovic at the end of Varen's Rebellion.
Empress Regent[34] Clivia Tharn 2E ? Imperial 2E 579[30] 2E 582[35] Was disposed of prior to 2E 582 and was replaced with Molag Kena. However, she may not have been killed when she was replaced.[36]
Unknown (many)[nb 13] N/A 2E 580[38] 2E 582[35] Pretenders of the Alliance War.[nb 13]
Unknown N/A Kamal 2E ? before 2E 812 At least one Kamal Usurper.[nb 14]
Cuhlecain  ? 2E 854[nb 15] 2E 854[39] Colovian King of Falkreath who later conquered all of Cyrodiil. Was allegedly murdered by Tiber Septim.[40]
Tiber Septim 2E 828 2E 854[39] 2E 896[41][42] Founded the Septim Dynasty.
Third EmpireSeptim Dynasty
Tiber Septim 2E 828 3E 0[41] 3E 38[41][42] Upon conquest of Tamriel, Tiber founded Third Empire and declared the Third Era.
Pelagius Septim I[nb 16]  ? 3E 38[41][42] 3E 40[41][42][nb 17] Assassinated by the Dark Brotherhood.[41]
Kintyra Septim I ? 3E 40[41][42] 3E 53[42] First cousin of Pelagius I and daughter of Tibers brother Agnorith. The direct dynastic line of Tiber is broken.
Uriel Septim I ? 3E 53[42] 3E 64[41][42] Son of Kintyra I; known as the great lawmaker of the Septime Dynasty and promoter of independent organizations and guilds.
Uriel Septim II ? 3E 64[41][42] 3E 82[41][43][42] Son of Uriel I, his reign is known for a bad financial and judicial handle as well as civil unrest.
Pelagius Septim II ? 3E 82[41][43][42] 3E 98[44][45][42] Dismissed the entire Elder Council only to sell back the seats to those who could pay. By the end of his reign, he fixed the Empire's financial situation.
Antiochus Septim 3E 51[45] 3E 99[41][44][nb 18] 3E 120[46][47][nb 19] Known for having many mistresses and nearly as many wives. His reign is known for civil wars, surpassing even those of Uriel II's time.
Kintyra Septim II 3E 104[48] 3E 120[46][49][47] 3E 121[50][42][nb 20](deposed)

3E 121[49](died) or
3E 123[51](died) or
3E 125[49](died)

Accused by her cousin, the later Uriel III, to be a bastard, starting a series of events which would conclude in the War of the Red Diamond.
Uriel Septim III 3E 97[45] 3E 121[41][nb 20] 3E 127[50][52] Born as Uriel Mantiarco as the son of Mantiarco, he later took the surname of his mother. He captured Empress Kintyra II and supposedly had her executed, so he could be crowned Emperor.
Cephorus Septim I 3E 77[44] 3E 127[50][53][52][42] 3E 140[53] Son of Pelagius Septim II. He captured Uriel III and was later crowned Emperor. His reign is marked by civil war as he tried to stabilize the Empire after the War of the Red Diamond.
Magnus Septim 3E 79[44] 3E 140[53] 3E 145[53][47] Son of Pelagius Septim II. His reign is know for the punishment of traitorous kings of the War of the Red Diamond.
Pelagius Septim III 'the Mad'[52] 3E 119[47] Breton 3E 145[53][52][45] 3E 147[42] (deposed),

3E 153[52][47][nb 21] (died)

Son of Magnus Septim. Known for his eccentricities of behavior and, later, his madness.
Katariah Ra'Athim ? Dunmer 3E 147[42] (deposition of Pelagius),

3E 153[52][47] (official coronation)

3E 200[52][47][nb 22] Katariah was the consort of Pelagius III and assumed the position of Empress Regent after he was sent to an Asylum. Her reign is known for repairing much of the damage the broken alliances of the last few Emperors had suffered and she was popular with the common people.
Cassynder Septim ? Dunmer-Breton 3E 200[54] 3E 202[54][nb 23] As the son of Pelagius III and Katariah he is said to be "half-elven"[52]. He assumed the throne with bad health and so his reign only lasted 2 years.
Uriel Septim IV ? Dunmer-Breton 3E 202[54][nb 23] 3E 246[52][nb 24] Born as Uriel Lariat as the son of Katariah Ra'Athim and Gallivere Lariat, he doesn't share any relation with the other Septims. In fact, he was adopted by his half-brother Cassynder into the dynasty. His reign is described as a long and difficult one in which the Elder Council assumed more and more powers.
Cephorus Septim II ? Nord[55] 3E 247[52][51] 3E 268[54][nb 25] Only Emperor to be elected by the Elder Council. The Council disinherited Uriel IV's son Andorak and proclaimed a member of a branch more closely related to the original Septim line Emperor. Andoraks supporters begin a military campaign against the Emperor, leading to Andorak receiving the Kingdom of Shornhelm.
Uriel Septim V ? 3E 268[54] 3E 290[54][56][42] Son of Cephorus II, known for the famous Tamrielic Invasion of Akavir. While he was absent, civil wars continued.
Regent Thonica ? 3E 290[57] 3E 307[57] Uriel VI was too young to rule in his own right when he was crowned, so his mother Thonica ruled as regent. He was eventually allowed to ascend the throne and assume full Imperial powers in 3E 307. Under her reign, civil wars continued.
Uriel Septim VI 3E 285[57] 3E 290[57][42] (crowned)

(3E 307)[57] (end of regency)
(3E 313) (assumed full powers)

3E 317[57][nb 26] Originally an Emperor only in name, Uriel VI only had the power of an imperial veto. Only by 3E 313 he was able to assume full power. Under his reign, civil wars continued.
Morihatha Septim 3E 288[57] 3E 313[57][nb 26] 3E 339[57][42] Established the Imperial Province to be under direct control of the Empress and ended the series of civil wars that had begun under her grandfather Cephorus Septim II as she slowly slowly took back her rebellious vassals.
Pelagius Septim IV 3E 314[57] 3E 339[57][42] 3E 368[57][nb 27] Continued the efforts to reunite Tamriel.
Uriel Septim VII 3E 346[58] Imperial 3E 368[57][42][nb 27] 3E 389[59] Continued the efforts to reunite Tamriel.
Third EmpireImperial Simulacrum
Jagar Tharn ? 3E 389 3E 399
Third Empire — Restoration
Uriel Septim VII 3E 346[58] Imperial 3E 399[57][42][nb 27] 3E 433[59] Uriel is the last proper Emperor of the Septim Dynasty to rule the Empire.
Martin Septim ? Imperial 3E 433[60] 3E 433[60] Martin was born as a bastard of Uriel VII and was enthroned shortly after his father's death. However Martin's only act as Emperor was to sacrifice himself to end the Oblivion Crisis. During his time at the Cloud ruler temple Martin learned how to open the portal to Gaiar Alata and led the army in the Battle of Bruma.
Third Empire — Stormcrown Interregnum
Potentate Ocato of Firsthold ? Altmer 4E 0[61] 4E 10[61] Originally trying to elect a new Emperor, he reluctantly took the position of Potentate after the Elder Council urged him to do so.
Thules the Gibbering ? Imperial ? 4E 17[62]
Third EmpireMede Dynasty
Titus Mede I  ? Imperial 4E 17[61]  ?
Attrebus Mede[nb 28] 4E 26[63] Imperial  ?  ?
Unknown[nb 29]  ?  ?  ?
Unknown[nb 29]  ?  ? 4E 168[64]
Titus Mede II  ? Imperial 4E 168[64] 4E 201[65]


  1. ^ According to developer Matt Grandstaff's posts Ami-El was still emperor in 1E 358.
  2. ^ The Legend of Red Eagle mentions Hestra invaded the Reach after 1E 1030.
  3. ^ Dates of Shor-El's reign are unknown, but they are mentioned after Hestra in Where were you when the Dragon Broke? as part of the Emperor Oversoul.
  4. ^ Gave Bendu Olo funding.[11]
  5. ^ The final emperor of the Alessian Empire is unidentified. His office was abolished in 1E 2331 when the Alessian Empire and Alessian Order were dissolved at the conclusion of the War of Righteousness.
  6. ^ The Remanada contains an allegorical story of Reman emerging from Sancre Tor as a child, but this should not be taken as literal truth.
  7. ^ Reman I died in 1E 2762 and it is reasonable to assume that his successor was crowned almost immediately afterwards.
  8. ^ The exact year of Kastav's death and the ascension of his successor, Reman II, is not specified by Annals of the Dragonguard. Sky Haven Temple was cut off from contact with Kastav in 1E 2804 and under siege during 1E 2805 and 1E 2806, so no news of the outside world reached the members of the Dragonguard stationed there. Only after the siege was lifted did they become aware of Reman II's ascension. However, given his 39 years of rule mentioned on his epitaph and his death in 1E 2843 according to Reman II: The Limits of Ambition, Reman II likely deposed Kastav in 1E 2804. Reman II was probably only officially crowned after Kastav's death in 1E 2812.
  9. ^ Brazollus Dor was placed between Reman II and Reman III by High King Emeric in High King Emeric Answers Your Questions. Despite being ruler, nearly all issues of policy and politics were delegated to his Potentate, Sidri-Ashak.
  10. ^ His race is never stated, however his son Juilek is revered to as a "Cyrodiil" in 2920, The Last Year of the First Era
  11. ^ It's controversial which assassin organisation really killed the last Akaviri Potentate. While literature speaks of the Dark Brotherhood, a Morag Tong assassin in ESO implies his ancestor was responsible for the assassination.
  12. ^ It is unknown when the warlord Attrebus gained the Imperial Throne during the Interregnum. According to the Pocket Guide to the Empire, 1st Edition, Attrebus' reign is established to have occurred prior to the city of Rimmen's secession from Elsweyr in 2E 812, and Akaviri expelled from Cyrodiil by Attrebus later settled in Elsweyr and founded Rimmen. As Rimmen was extant as early as 2E 576 per House Tharn of Nibenay when Leovic of the Longhouse Emperors was in power, Attrebus could only have reigned sometime between the onset of the Interregnum in 2E 430 and whenever Durcorach, the first Longhouse Emperor, ascended to the throne.
  13. ^ a b During the Alliance War, as each alliance fleetingly gained control of the Imperial City, they would crown a figurehead Emperor from among their warriors. These Emperors' reigns were extremely short-lived and their names have been lost to history.[37]
  14. ^ At some point prior to 2E 812, the remnants of the defeated Kamal army that invaded Tamriel in 2E 572 seized the Imperial Throne from the successors of the warlord Attrebus. This suggests that at least one Kamal ruled as Emperor for a time.
  15. ^ Cuhlecain proclaimed himself emperor upon capturing the Imperial City, but he was assassinated before he could be formally crowned. His successor Tiber Septim, who became the first emperor of the Third Empire of Tamriel after completing the conquest of the continent 42 years later, honored Cuhlecain as "Emperor Zero".
  16. ^ "There has been some disagreement regarding Pelagius' relationship with Tiber Septim. A version of a Brief History of the Empire referred to Pelagius as Tiber's eldest son, but it has since been revised. Some passages in The Real Barenziah suggest that Tiber's wife, referred to as the Empress, had multiple "children". The likeliest explanations include that Tiber and the Empress had female children otherwise unrecorded to history, or that the general public were referred to as the Empress' "children". Other possibilities include that the Empress had children that were not Tiber's, the two of them had secret offspring, or a mistake on the part of the author. Regardless, the throne ended up with Kintyra.
  17. ^ A Brief History of the Empire says that Pelagius reigned for "less than three years", suggesting a date of 3E 40. The Daggerfall Chronicles explicitly uses this date.
  18. ^ Book 3 of The Wolf Queen indicates that Antiochus was not offered the throne until some time had passed after the death of Pelagius II. A Brief History of the Empire indicates that he took the throne twelve years before the War of the Isle in 3E 110, which leads to the same date.
  19. ^ Book 5 of The Wolf Queen states that Antiochus fell into a coma in 3E 119 and that his funeral was in 3E 120. The Madness of Pelagius agrees, stating that Kintyra ascended the throne "just over a year" after Pelagius' birth in 3E 119. Both books are contradicted in the Biography of the Wolf Queen, which explicitly places his death in 3E 112. To add to the confusion, see the note about the date of Pelagius III's birth. This chart uses the 120 date, since most references state that to be the correct date.
  20. ^ a b In The Wolf Queen, although there is uncertainty over the date of Kintyra's death, it is stated that Uriel III was crowned "four years previously" to the year 3E 125, implying that he was crowned in 3E 121. A Brief History of the Empire explicitly states that Uriel took the throne in 121. The Biography of the Wolf Queen states that Kintyra was executed in 3E 114 and that Uriel ascended to the throne "seven years later". Thus, while all three books agree on the date of Uriel's ascension, the Biography implies a seven year interregnum during the War of the Red Diamond when nobody wore the Imperial crown. The precise date given in Broken Diamonds implies that Kintyra was held in captivity for some time before her death.
  21. ^ The Madness of Pelagius says that Pelagius III died in the 34th year of his life, which translates to 3E 153.
  22. ^ Both Brief History of the Empire and The Madness of Pelagius put the length of Katariah's reign at 46 years. To fit in with later events, this reign must end in 3E 200.
  23. ^ a b The Daggerfall version of Brief History says "In two years, he was dead" while the later version says that Cassynder died "Three years after [his accession]". It is impossible to determine exactly which year these statements are intended to mean, but 3E 202 seems reasonable.
  24. ^ Brief History of the Empire describes the reign of Uriel Septim IV lasting 43 years. This must have extended into 3E 246, as The Rear Guard describes a law made "in 3E 246, during the reign of Uriel IV". The Daggerfall Chronicles place Uriel's death in 3E 247, but it doesn't seem possible to stretch his reign into this year given other events. It is possible this date has been superseded.
  25. ^ Although the Brief History of the Empire states Cephorus II became emperor in 3E 268, this is clearly an error. The same book states that Uriel Septim V also became emperor in 268, so it is more logical to assume the latter is correct and that Cephorus simply followed on from Uriel IV. Cephorus is described as "a cousin more closely related to the original Septim line", although his precise line of descent is not clear.
  26. ^ a b The Third Era Timeline states that Uriel VI died and Morihatha was crowned in 3E 320, and Tamriel's Timeline, The Daggerfall Chronicles suggests the year was 3E 317. However, Brief History of the Empire notes that Morihatha was born a month after her father left for Akavir in 3E 288, and that she was 25-years-old as Empress, which would put her coronation in 3E 313.
  27. ^ a b c The Brief History of the Empire states that Pelagius reigned for 49 years, but this has been acknowledged as an error - the correct span is 29 years.
  28. ^ Although it is never stated that Attrebus Mede succeeded his father Titus I as Emperor, it can be assumed that he did since he was Crown Prince as of 4E 48, there was no indication of other heirs to the throne at the time, and the Mede bloodline survived until the time of Titus II.
  29. ^ a b It is unknown how many Mede Emperors reigned between Attrebus and Titus II. Given the gap of 142 years between Attrebus' birth in 4E 26 and Titus II's ascension to the throne in 4E 168, as well as the knowledge that Titus II's father had a sister while Attrebus had no known siblings, Attrebus was most likely not Titus II's father or grandfather. It can therefore be assumed that at least two other Medes reigned as emperor between Attrebus and Titus II.


  1. ^ a b The Song of Pelinal, v 3
  2. ^ a b The Last King of the AyleidsHerminia Cinna
  3. ^ Pocket Guide to the Empire, 3rd Edition: All the Eras of Man, A Comprehensive History of our HistoryImperial Geographical Society, 3E 432
  4. ^ Cleansing of the Fane
  5. ^ On MinotaursNonus Caprenius, Temporarily Unaffiliated Scholar of Imperial Antiquities
  6. ^ Rislav The RighteousSinjin
  7. ^ Rislav The RighteousSinjin
  8. ^ Bangkorai, Shield of High Rock — King Eamond
  9. ^ Pocket Guide to the Empire, 3rd Edition: The War with the Trees: Argonia and the Black MarshImperial Geographical Society, 3E 432
  10. ^ Where Were You ... Dragon Broke — Various
  11. ^ 2. Baron-Admiral Bendu Olo
  12. ^ a b Pocket Guide to the Empire, 1st Edition: CyrodiilImperial Geographical Society, 2E 864
  13. ^ Pocket Guide to the Empire, 3rd Edition: The Wilds Remain: ValenwoodImperial Geographical Society, 3E 432
  14. ^ Tomb in Sancre Tor: "Here lies Reman of Cyrodiil. He defeated the Akaviri Horde and brought peace to Tamriel. 2762."
  15. ^ The Book of the Dragonborn — Prior Emelene Madrine
  16. ^ a b c d Reman II: The Limits of AmbitionHigh King Emeric
  17. ^ Emperor Kastav's Epitaph — Honor Guard Captain Sadineras-Kor
  18. ^ a b c d Tomb in Sancre Tor: "Here lies Reman II of Cyrodiil, crowned Emperor of Tamriel in the year 2812. He fell in battle against the Dark Elves, in the fifty-seventh year of his age, after a reign of thirty-nine years and eight months wanting a day."
  19. ^ Annals of the DragonguardBrother Annulus
  20. ^ a b High King Emeric Answers Your QuestionsHigh King Emeric
  21. ^ a b Tomb in Sancre Tor: "Here lies Reman III, last Emperor of the Cyrodiils, the scourge of the Dark Elves, who was cruelly slain by treachery, in the year 2920. He reigned forty-three years."
  22. ^ 2920, The Last Year of the First EraCarlovac Townway
  23. ^ a b c d The Brothers of DarknessPellarne Assi
  24. ^ 2920, The Last Year of the First EraCarlovac Townway
  25. ^ Pocket Guide to the Empire, 3rd Edition: The Seat of Sundered Kings: CyrodiilImperial Geographical Society, 3E 432
  26. ^ Pocket Guide to the Empire, 1st Edition: The Elsweyr ConfederacyImperial Geographical Society, 2E 864
  27. ^ Chronicles of the Five Companions 4Abnur Tharn
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Secret History of the Longhouse EmperorsCouncilor Vandacia
  29. ^ History of Markarth: A Story in StoneConsul Cardea, the Ard's Administrator
  30. ^ a b c Travails and Triumphs of a Monarch — His Majesty King Emeric
  31. ^ a b The Royal House of King EamondSeneschal Derric Andras of
  32. ^ The Wolf of Solitude — , of the
  33. ^ Chronicles of the Five Companions 1Lyris Titanborn
  34. ^ House Tharn of NibenayCount Opius Voteporix
  35. ^ a b Events of The Elder Scrolls Online
  36. ^ Sister Terran Arminus's dialogue in The Elder Scrolls Online
  37. ^ Chancellor Abnur Tharn Answers Your Questions 2Chancellor Abnur Tharn
  38. ^ The Chorrol Crier
  39. ^ a b Pocket Guide to the Empire, 1st Edition: Cyrodiil — Imperial Geographical Society, 2E 864
  40. ^ The Arcturian Heresy — The Underking, Ysmir Kingmaker
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Brief History of the Empire v 1Stronach k'Thojj III
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Tamriel's Timeline, The Daggerfall Chronicles — Ronald Wartow
  43. ^ a b The_Wolf_Queen, v2Waughin Jarth
  44. ^ a b c d The_Wolf_Queen, v3Waughin Jarth
  45. ^ a b c d Biography of the Wolf QueenKatar Eriphanes
  46. ^ a b The Wolf Queen, v5Waughin Jarth
  47. ^ a b c d e f g The Madness of PelagiusTsathenes
  48. ^ The Wolf Queen, v4Waughin Jarth
  49. ^ a b c The Wolf Queen, v6Waughin Jarth
  50. ^ a b c The Wolf Queen, v7Waughin Jarth
  51. ^ a b The Third Era TimelineJaspus Ignateous
  52. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Brief History of the Empire v 2Stronach k'Thojj III
  53. ^ a b c d e The Wolf Queen, v8Waughin Jarth
  54. ^ a b c d e f Brief History of the Empire v 3Stronach k'Thojj III
  55. ^ The Fall of the UsurperPalaux Illthre
  56. ^ Report: Disaster at IonithLord Pottreid, Chairman
  57. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Brief History of the Empire v 4Stronach k'Thojj III
  58. ^ a b Intro speech in TES4 by Uriel Septim "I was born 87 years ago...". The speech was made in 3E 433.
  59. ^ a b The Black Horse Courier, Special Edition
  60. ^ a b Events of Oblivion
  61. ^ a b c Rising ThreatLathenil of Sunhold
  62. ^ Lord of Souls — Gregory Keyes
  63. ^ The Infernal City — Gregory Keyes
  64. ^ a b The Great War — Legate Justianus Quintius
  65. ^ Events of Skyrim

Note: The following references are considered to be unofficial sources. They are included to round off this article and may not be authoritative or conclusive.