→Sneak Attacks: changed the word "with" to "without"
If a sneak attack does not kill an enemy, you will become detected -- by the enemy themselves and by any of their allies within detection range. This seems to be true even if it does not appear that the enemies "ought" to be able to know where the attack came from -- e.g., by an arrow fired from cover.
Also, when you attack from sneak, you immediately leave sneak. Leaving sneak automatically has the benefit of making you instantly able to attack/defend/run
with being handicapped in your movement speed, but may factor into the fact that you become immediately visible.
Subsequently crouching to return to sneak, or using concealing skills such as the Nightblade's Shadow Cloak, will have whatever success in hiding you again that they would in any combat situation: mixed, depending on your circumstances. However, if you can regain sneak, you can immediately attack again and have the usual sneak multipliers apply.